eBay Patent Wars
MercExchange filed a lawsuit against eBay in 2001 for patent infringement. One aspect of
that case is going before the Supreme Court on March 29, 2006 - whether or not there
should be an injunction against eBay's Buy It Now feature. Here is a guide to "the
eBay Patent Wars."
What the Supreme Court Is Reviewing
A jury ruled in 2003 that eBay willfully infringed
MercExchange's patents. However, the judge denied MercExchange's motion for a permanent
injunction against eBay for using its patent. In 2005, the Appeals Court reversed the
lower court's denial of injunction. eBay petitioned the Supreme Court, arguing that
District Court judges should be allowed to use their discretion in determining whether to
grant injunctions in patent cases, calling the Appeals Court ruling an "automatic
eBay argued to the Supreme Court that the Appeals Court did not
consider the four factors traditionally considered in deciding whether to issue an
injunction: irreparable injury; inadequacy of legal remedies; balancing of parties'
hardships; and whether an injunction would adversely affect the public interest.
In an amicus brief, the United States government stated that,
"although the Court of Appeals did not invoke the traditional four-factor test, it
correctly recognized that the District Court had improperly relied on inappropriate
considerations, which amounted to an abuse of discretion, and the court of appeals
therefore properly reversed the District Court's denial of MercExchange's request for an
A key factor in the case before the Supreme Court is whether it
should overrule its 1908 decision that a federal court may grant a patentee an injunction
even if that patentee does not practice its own invention, decided in the
"Continental Paper Bag Co. v. Eastern Paper Bag Co." case.
It appears the high-tech industry generally supports eBay's stance,
and the pharmaceutical industry generally supports MercExchange's stance. An article in
the San Jose Mercury News newspaper stated, "If eBay prevails, pharmaceutical
companies might find it harder to persuade courts to halt infringements of their patents.
Tech companies, on the other hand, worry that a tougher stance on injunctions would
require them to modify their products because of companies or individuals who file
opportunistic patent suits." (http://www.mercurynews.com/mld/mercurynews/13281956.htm)
Argument in Support of eBay
eBay supporters believe the Appeals Court has created an "automatic injunction
rule" that goes beyond the Patent Act, which allows district courts to use their
discretion in granting injunctions in patent cases. Supporters express concern that the
specifics of this case would have ramifications outside of this case that would harm many
The threat of an injunction causes manufacturers to settle with
patent holders because, "Defendants are paying holdup money to avoid the threat of
injunctive relief," according to an amici brief filed by 35 intellectual property
professors filed in support of eBay's petition to the Supreme Court.
The Business Software Alliance and other high-tech associations
stated in their amici brief that "Technology products typically consist of hundreds
or thousands of patented components...." They state, "Because an injunction will
issue automatically upon a finding of infringement - even if the claim relates to only an
insignificant part of the product - the target of the claim is forced to pay an
extortionate settlement in order to preserve its business."
Argument in Support of MercExchange
Susman Godfrey LLP's amicus brief filed in support of MercExchange said some companies,
like Intel, Micron and IBM, recognize the importance of injunctive relief - so long as
they are the ones seeking it. If a key factor in whether to grant an injunction against a
patent infringer is whether the patentee makes a product, it would diminish the incentive
to innovate and amount to a "Heads, I win; tails, you lose" system and would
create institutionalized unfairness, according to Susman Godfrey.
"Some amici,...would have this Court create a balancing
test that turns on factors that correspond to their operations, thereby enabling
themselves to obtain injunctive relief while making it more difficult for independent
investors to obtain injunctions against them."
A Wall Street Journal editorial by Alan Murray on March 22, 2006,
said "patent trolls" are getting a bad rap. Most U.S. research universities fit
the definition of a patent troll. "Does anyone think Stanford University deserves
less patent protection than, say, Microsoft, because it doesn't make or sell
product?" he asks. Murray says the problem "isn't companies that don't
commercialize their own patents. Rather, it is bad patents. In part, that happens because
the Patent and trademark Office is understaffed and overwhelmed." (http://online.wsj.com/article/SB114298577458004598.html)
A Washington Post column, "Big Firms Caught with their Patents
Down," by Steven Pearlstein states, "The high-tech industry is full of companies
that boast entire business units dedicated to licensing their patent portfolios. It is
pure hypocrisy for the industry to argue that this is somehow illegitimate when done by
small inventors." (http://digbig.com/4gxap)
Index to Briefs
Dennis Crouch, a patent attorney with McDonnell Boehnen Hulbert & Berghoff LLP, has
been following the case and has compiled a summary with links to briefs on his blog at: http://patentlaw.typepad.com/patent/2006/03/ebay_v_mercexch.html
The eBay Patent Wars: Timeline
April 1995 Woolston files patents
Date unknown Woolston creates
company called Fleanet
Date unknown Woolston changes name of Fleanet to
September 1995 Pierre Omidyar develops AuctionWeb
as a hobby while working at General Magic
Fall 1996 Omidyar quits his job and moves eBay into
Summer 1997 eBay seals deal with Benchmark Capital
venture capital firm
October 1997 eBay hires first lawyer, Brad Handler
of Cooley Godward, an intellectual property lawyer*
March 1998 Meg Whitman joins eBay as President
September 1998 eBay goes public
December 1998 First patent issued to MercExchange
January 1999 MercExchange gets first licensee
1999 MercExchange gets $10 million funding
2000 MercExchange says its General Counsel John
Phillips meets with eBay's Tod Cohen for lunch and topic of MercExchange patents arises
2000 MercExchange has trouble gaining traction in
the marketplace, lays off all 40 employees
June 2000 MercExchange and eBay enter discussions
July 2000 eBay acquires Half.com, a fixed-price
November 2000 eBay launches Buy It Now feature
2001 MercExchange wins $4 million patent
infringement settlement against GoTo.com Inc.
September 2001 MercExchange files lawsuit against
eBay, Half.com and ReturnBuy for patent infringement
October 2002 District Court Judge Friedman issues
Markham ruling and ruled the '051 auction patent invalid for lack of enablement. Stage is
set for trial to move forward with '176 and '265 patent.
April 24, 2003 Trial commences in U.S. District
Court, Norfolk, Virginia, MercExchange v. eBay
May 27, 2003 Jury rules eBay guilty of willful
infringement of MercExchange patents and awards $35 million in damages
June 12, 2003 MercExchange files motion for entry
of a permanent injunction order
August 7, 2003 Judge Rules on post-trial motions in
eBay patent lawsuit, commenting that the trial was possibly the most contentious case he
had ever presided over. He denies MercExchange's motion for an injunction against eBay's
Buy It Now feature: "If the court did enjoin the defendants here, the court would
essentially be opening a Pandora's box of new problems," but also said that if eBay
continues to infringe MercExchange's patents, "the court will be more inclined to
award enhanced damages for any post-verdict infringement."
June 4, 2004 USPTO orders a reexamination of
MercExchange patents on eBay's request.
June 2004 uBid agrees to license MercExchange
patents for Internet-based auctions.
March 16, 2005 Decision announced by U.S. Court of
Appeals for the Federal Circuit:
- Held that the claims of the '176 patent are invalid for anticipation
and reverses judgement for Half.com on the '176 patent.
- Affirmed the jury's verdict regarding infringement and validity of
the '265 patent.
- Reversed the denial of permanent injunction.
- Reversed summary judgement of invalidity of the '051 (auction)
July 25, 2005 eBay files petition for Writ of
Certiorari with Supreme Court in objection to the Appeals Court ruling reversing the
denial of permanent injunction.
September 26, 2005 MercExchange files response to
Supreme Court petition certiorari
November 28, 2005 Supreme Court grants certiorari.
In addition to the question presented by the petition, the Supreme Court directs the
parties to brief and argue the following question: "Whether this Court should
reconsider its precedents, including Continental Paper Bag Co. v. Eastern Paper Bag Co.,
210 U.S. 405 (1908), on when it is appropriate to grant an injunction against a patent
December 2005 MercExchange reaches agreement with
USPTO in reexam of '051 patent. USPTO accepts MercExchange's clarifying amendments to the
claims of the patent, and has agreed that these claims are a patentable innovation.
December 2005 Forbes reports that MercExchange got funding from hedge
firm Altitude Capital.
March 10, 2006 United States government files amicus brief in support of
March 29, 2006 Supreme Court hears oral
arguments. Carter Phillips (Sidley Austin Brown & Wood LLP for eBay), Seth Waxman (
WilmerHale for MercExchange), and Jeffrey Minear (Government) divide up the sixty-minute
argument period (http://www.supremecourtus.gov/oral_arguments/argument_transcripts/05-130.pdf).
May 15, 2006 Supreme Court vacates a U.S. Appeals Court decision that
favored MercExchange's request for an injunction against eBay's Buy It Now feature
July 10, 2006 U.S. Court of Appeals
remands case back to the District Court.
August 28, 2006 MercExchange files a
motion for a permanent injunction, eBay files motion to stay proceedings in view of the
ongoing patent office reexamination proceedings.
September 25, 2006 eBay files a motion to
strike new and irrelevant evidence from the plaintiff's renewed request for a permanent
injunction, and files a motion for leave to file motion to enforce the court's protective
October 10, 2006 eBay files a motion with
memorandum in support to strike the Nahan declaration or for leave to submit declaration
October 10, 2006 Motion for permanent
injunction referred to Judge Jerome B. Friedman.
November 17, 2006 Motion hearing in
District Court before Judge Friedman.
December 18, 2006 District Court ruling on secondary motions
June 12, 2007 Motion hearing set before District Judge Friedman http://www.auctionbytes.com/cab/abn/y07/m04/i18/s00
July 27, 2007 Judge rules eBay may continue to use its Buy It Now
feature, read more: http://www.auctionbytes.com/cab/abn/y07/m07/i30/s02
December 11, 2007 District Court enters
final judgment on damages in
February 28, 2008
Case settled, eBay acquires MercExchange patents.
*Adam Cohen writes in his book about eBay, "The
Perfect Store," that Brad Handler was "particularly pained" when he joined
the company in 1997 that eBay hadn't filed any
patents. "Patents on eBay's most important innovations would have been enormously
lucrative, and would have made it far more difficult for rivals to move into the online
auction space." See more on p. 89-92 of "The Perfect Store" by Adam Cohen
The Key Patents
'176 - Method and Apparatus for Using Software Search Agents to
Locate Items in Electronic Markets. (Affects Half.com.)
'265 - Consignment Nodes. (Fixed-price patent).
'051 - Method and apparatus for conducting person-to-person online
auctions. (Auction patent.)
MercExchange patent portfolio: http://www.mercexchange.com/solutions.htm
At Issue: eBay's "Buy It Now" Feature
eBay introduced the Buy It Now feature in November 2000. It allowed sellers to list an
auction with an option for buyers to purchase the item right away if they agreed to the
"Buy It Now" price. On June 18, 2002, eBay introduced Buy It Now in a
non-auction format. This meant eBay sellers could bypass the auction format and list items
directly at a fixed-price.
In early 2002, less than 20 percent of eBay's Gross Merchandise
Sales were generated by Buy It Now listings, and that number reached 34 percent by the end
of 2005. eBay introduced seller fees for using the Buy It Now feature in 2002.
The Buy It Now feature increases the velocity of trading on eBay
since buyers do not have to wait for auctions to end in order to make a purchase. The BIN
feature has been increasingly important as eBay has shifted from mostly collectibles to
mostly "practicals" on its site. In 1999, collectibles made up 60 percent of
eBay's Gross Merchandise Sales. by 2003, it made up only 13 percent of Gross Merchandise
Sales. Consumers shopping for practicals, such as consumer electronics items, DVDs and
components, are less patient than consumers hunting for collectibles.
in the Case
District Court Judge Friedman said an injunction against eBay's Buy It Now feature would
open a Pandora's Box of new problems. Nevertheless, once the Supreme Court rules, the case
goes back to the District Court, which will have to deal with issues such as whether eBay
continues to infringe. eBay said it made a design workaround so it is no longer infringing
on the patent, MercExchange said this isn't so.
Auction listings on eBay:
The Appeals Court reversed the District Court summary judgement of invalidity of the '051
(auction) patent. MercExchange has cleared the patent with the US Patent & Trademark
office and says it will proceed with the lawsuit against eBay on the '051 patent, covering
International ramifications of the case:
Patent expert Harold C. Wegner, a partner at Foley & Lardner and professor at George
Washington University Law School, says eBay's petition to the Supreme Court is in conflict
with TRIPS, the Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property. In his article,
"Injunctive Relief: A Charming Betsy Boomerang," Wegner talks more about this
and the problems in the patent system.
U.S. District Judge Jerome B. Friedman
Presided over 5-week trial MercExchange v. eBay in April - May 2003.
Tom Woolston, Founder of MercExchange
Born in Michigan, Tom Woolston was raised in Ohio. When he was 18, he enlisted in the
Air Force. When he got out of the service, he started going to evening school at the
University of Maryland, studying computer science, then transferring to George Washington
University in Washington, D.C., where he studied electrical engineering. Later Woolston
went on to get a law degree. He worked at the Central Intelligence Agency, National
Security Agency, and practiced law at Hunton & Williams, Howrey & Simon and Fish
& Richardson PC.
Pierre Omidyar, Founder and Chairman of the Board, eBay
Born in Paris in 1967 and moved to Washington DC at the age of 6. Pierre Omidyar graduated
from Tufts University in 1988 with a Bachelor of Science in computer science. When Omidyar
launched eBay as a hobby, his "day job" was conducting developer relations for
General Magic. Prior to General Magic, he co-founded Ink Development Corp., which was
renamed eShop and acquired by Microsoft, making him a millionaire in his twenties. His
career began in the software engineering business as a developer for Claris, a subsidiary
of Apple Computer, where he worked on consumer applications. Omidyar is CEO of Omidyar
Network, a mission-based investment group he established with his wife, Pam, in June 2004.
In addition to his roles with eBay and Omidyar Network, Omidyar serves as a Trustee of
Tufts University and Santa Fe Institute, and a Director of Meetup Inc.
Meg Whitman, President and CEO, eBay Inc.
Raised on Long Island, New York, Meg Whitman received a Bachelor of Economics
from Princeton University in 1977 and a Master of Business Administration from Harvard
Business School. Joined eBay March 1998. Prior to eBay, Whitman was general manager of
Hasbro Inc.'s Preschool Division, responsible for global management and marketing of
Playskool and Mr. Potato Head. From 1995 to 1997, Whitman was president and chief
executive officer of Florists Transworld Delivery (FTD). Before FTD, she served as
president of the Stride Rite Corporation's Stride Rite Division. Whitman spent 1989 to
1992 at the Walt Disney Company, highlighted by her work as senior vice president of
marketing for the Disney Consumer Products Division. Whitman also worked for eight years
at Bain & Companys San Francisco office where she was a vice president. Whitman
began her career at Procter & Gamble in Cincinnati where she worked in brand
management from 1979 to 1981. Whitman is on the Board of Directors of Procter & Gamble
and DreamWorks Animation
Michael Jacobson, Senior Vice President and General Counsel, eBay
Earned a Bachelor of Arts in Economics, Magna Cum Laude, in 1975 from Harvard College and
a law degree from Stanford University in 1981. Joined eBay in 1998. Responsibilities
include overseeing eBay's legal department, its risk management program, and its policy
group. He is responsible for interactions with content regulators, law enforcement,
contracts, SEC compliance, and other legal matters. Prior to eBay, Jacobson was a partner
with Cooley Godward LLP where he was recognized as an expert in securities law. His
responsibilities included corporate and securities transactions, including mergers and
acquisition transactions, public offerings, and venture capital financing.
Key MercExchange Lawyers
Scott L. Robertson, Hunton & Williams LLP
Jennifer A. Albert, Hunton & Williams LLP
Brian M. Buroker, Hunton & Williams LLP
Gregory N. Stillman, Hunton & Williams LLP
David M. Young, Hunton & Williams LLP
Seth Waxman, WilmerHale
Key eBay Lawyers
Jay Monahan, eBay Inc.
Jeffrey G. Randall, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
Donald R. Dunner, Finnegan, Henderson, Farabow, Garrett &
Timothy S. Teter and Lori Ploeger, Cooley Godward LLP
Allan M. Soobert, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP
Carter G. Phillips, Sidley Austin Brown & Wood LLP
Books about eBay
"eBoys: the True Story of the Six Tall Men Who Backed eBay and Other Billion-Dollar
Start-Ups," by Randall E. Stross
"The Perfect Store: Inside eBay," by Adam Cohen
"The PayPal Wars: Battles with eBay, the Media, the Mafia, and
the Rest of Planet Earth," by Eric Jackson